Thursday, December 14, 2017
Tuesday, December 12, 2017
Sunday, December 10, 2017
Thursday, December 7, 2017
Definition of dementia from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (NINDS).
Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning—the ability to think, remember, problem solve or reason—to such an extent that it interferes with a person’s daily life and activities. Dementia ranges in severity from the mildest stage, when it is just beginning to affect a person’s functioning, to the most severe stage, when the person must depend completely on others for basic activities of daily living.
|Learn about the brain in everyday language.|
Functions affected include memory, language skills, visual perception, problem solving, self-management, and the ability to focus and pay attention. Some people with dementia cannot control their emotions, and their personalities may change. Signs and symptoms of dementia result when once-healthy neurons (nerve cells) in the brain stop working, lose connections with other brain cells, and die.
While everyone loses some neurons as they age, people with dementia experience far greater loss. Unlike dementia, age-related memory loss isn’t disabling. While dementia is more common with advanced age (as many as half of all people age 85 or older may have some form of dementia), it is not normal part of aging. Many people live into their 90s and beyond without any signs of dementia.
The causes of dementia can vary. Many people with dementia have both Alzheimer’s disease and one or more closely related disorders that share brain scanning or clinical (and sometimes both) features with Alzheimer’s disease. When a person is affected by more than one dementia disorder, the dementia can be referred to as a mixed dementia.
Some people may have mixed dementia caused by Alzheimer’s-related neurodegenerative processes, vascular disease-related processes, or another neurodegenerative condition. Many other conditions such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Huntington’s Disease, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy can cause dementia or dementia-like symptoms.
Risk factors for dementia include advancing age, stroke, high blood pressure, poorly controlled diabetes, and a thickening of blood vessel walls (atherosclerosis). Other dementias include frontotemporal disorders, vascular dementia, and Lewy body dementia.
Wednesday, December 6, 2017
Source: USA Today
As Ryan Shazier continues to undergo tests at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center for a spine injury, he tweeted a thank-you Tuesday evening.
Shazier was injured during the Pittsburgh Steelers' win over the Cincinnati Bengals onMonday Night Football. He was taken by ambulance to the hospital after being removed from the field on a backboard.
"Thank you for the prayers. Your support is uplifting to me and my family. #SHALIEVE"
Earlier Tuesday, team general manager Kevin Colbert said Shazier is not expected to need surgery. Doctors released a statement that said he will remain hospitalized for more tests and evaluations during the next 24-48 hours.
Shazier underwent a CT scan and MRI after being injured in the first quarter of the Steelers' 23-20 win.
After he tackled receiver Josh Malone with the crown of his helmet, he slumped to the turf and his body went limp. He later grabbed his middle back and it appeared he was having trouble moving his legs.
|Learn about the brain, the spinal cord and the central nervous system in easy-to-read form.|
Source: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke:
How does the spinal cord work? To understand what can happen as the result of a spinal cord injury, it is important to understand the anatomy of the spinal cord and its normal functions. The spinal cord is a tight bundle of neural cells (neurons and glia) and nerve pathways (axons) that extend from the base of the brain to the lower back. It is the primary information highway that receives sensory information from the skin, joints, internal organs, and muscles of the trunk, arms, and legs, which is then relayed upward to the brain. It also carries messages downward from the brain to other body systems.
Millions of nerve cells situated in the spinal cord itself also coordinate complex patterns of movements such as rhythmic breathing and walking. Together, the spinal cord and brain make up the central nervous system (CNS), which controls most functions of the body. The spinal cord is made up of neurons, glia, and blood vessels. The neurons and their dendrites (branching projections that receive input from axons of other neurons) reside in an H-shaped or butterfly-shaped region called gray matter. The gray matter of the cord contains lower motor neurons, which branch out from the cord to muscles, internal organs, and tissue in other parts of the body and transmit information commands to start and stop muscle movement that is under voluntary control.
Upper motor neurons are located in the brain and send their long processes (axons) to the spinal cord neurons. Other types of nerve cells found in dense clumps of cells that sit just outside the spinal cord (called sensory ganglia) relay information such as temperature, touch, pain, vibration, and joint position back to the brain. The axons carry signals up and down the spinal cord and to the rest of the body. Thousands of axons are bundled into pairs of spinal nerves that link the spinal cord to the muscles and the rest of the body. The function of these nerves reflects their location along the spinal cord. 4 • Cervical spinal nerves (C1 to C8) emerge from the spinal cord in the neck and control signals to the back of the head, the neck and shoulders, the arms and hands, and the diaphragm. • Thoracic spinal nerves (T1 to T12) emerge from the spinal cord in the upper mid-back and control signals to the chest muscles, some muscles of the back, and many organ systems, including parts of the abdomen.
Lumbar spinal nerves (L1 to L5) emerge from the spinal cord in the low back and control signals to the lower parts of the abdomen and the back, the buttocks, some parts of the external genital organs, and parts of the leg. Between the vertebrae of the spinal column are discs that act as passages through which the spinal nerves travel. These places are particularly vulnerable to injury