Saturday, March 17, 2018
Saturday, March 10, 2018
By moving the clocks ahead one hour in the Spring, we lose one hour which shifts work times and other scheduled events one hour earlier. This pushes most people to have a one hour earlier bedtime and wake up time. In the Fall, time moves back one hour. We gain one hour which shifts work times and other scheduled events one hour later thereby pushing most people to have a one hour later bedtime and wake up time.
|Learn more about the brain here.|
It can take about one week for the body to adjust the new times for sleeping, eating, and activity (Harrision, 2013). Until they have adjusted, people can have trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up at the right time. This can lead to sleep deprivation and reduction in performance, increasing the risk for mistakes including vehicle crashes. Workers can experience somewhat higher risks to both their health and safety after the time changes (Harrison, 2013). A study by Kirchberger and colleagues (2015) reported men and persons with heart disease may be at higher risk for a heart attack during the week after the time changes in the Spring and Fall.
The reason for these problems is thought to be disruption to circadian rhythms and sleep. Circadian rhythms are daily cycles of numerous hormones and other body functions that prepare us for the expected times for sleeping, eating, and activity. Circadian rhythms have difficulty adjusting to an abrupt one hour time change.
Other hazards for workers related to the time change in the Fall include a sudden change in the driving conditions in the late afternoon rush hour– from driving home from work during daylight hours to driving home in darkness. People may not have changed their driving habits to nighttime driving and might be at somewhat higher risk for a vehicle crash. Additionally, the Spring time change leads to more daylight in the evening which may disturb some people’s sleep.
To help reduce risks about one and a half weeks before the time changes in the Fall and Spring, employers can relay these points to help their workers.
- Remind workers that several days after the time changes are associated with somewhat higher health and safety risks due to disturbances to circadian rhythms and sleep.
- It can take one week for the body to adjust sleep times and circadian rhythms to the time change so consider reducing demanding physical and mental tasks as much as possible that week to allow oneself time to adjust.
- Remind workers to be especially vigilant while driving, at work, and at home to protect themselves since others around them may be sleepier and at risk for making an error that can cause a vehicle crash or other accident.
- Research found men and people with existing heart disease may be at risk for a heart attack after the time change.
- Workers can improve their adaptation to the time change by using these suggestions (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2013). Circadian rhythms and sleep are strongly influenced by several factors including timing of exposure to light and darkness, times of eating and exercise, and time of work. One way to help the body adjust is to gradually change the times for sleep, eating, and activity.
Source: CDC/Claire Caruso, PhD, RN, FAAN
Tuesday, March 6, 2018
There's no luxury about sleep. Lack of a regular routine of 8-9 hours causes serious problems and risks in day-to-day living. Consider the needs of a hockey player who wants to achieve at his or her highest level.
|Fitness for hockey players begins with proper rest..|
You know you should probably get more sleep.
Mom probably told you to go to bed earlier. Coach probably threw a 9:30 curfew on the squad on the road. Someone, at some point, has preached about the importance of a that supposedly magical 8-hours.
If you’re serious about performance – they’re not wrong.
|Learn about the brain and sleep.|
Getting into that late night Instagram lurk or Netflix binge could actually be holding you back from peak performance. This article is really to share the current Sleep/Sport Science research with my own athletes when I tell them that my favourite performance enhancement supplement is a good night sleep.
Let’s dive in.
Sleep Benefit 1: Improved Reaction Times
Elite reaction times aren’t just for goalies. Explosive cuts, avoiding a big dman stepping up on you, getting that shot off instantly in the slot – reaction time is essential for high performance.
And, this can be significantly impacted by sleep.
A Harvard study found that an all-nighter can reduce reaction times by 300% and take days to recover from (1). So while a good nights sleep before a game is important, not having good sleep habits throughout the week can still reduce performance on Friday.
Multiple studies have found that fatigue can have the same effect on reaction time performance as intoxication. So while it’s easy to understand the significance playing after a couple beers would have – hockey players need to consider if their sleep habits may be slowing them down.
So while (hopefully) elite athletes understand the significance playing drunk would have on peak performance, more hockey players need to consider if their sleep habits may be slowing them down on game day.
Benefit 2: Reduced Injury Rates and Improved Overall Health
The headline sounds obvious, and it is. Sleep improves health and reduces injuries, but a lot of athletes don’t really understand the magnitude of this.
A recent study looking at injuries rates of high school athletes found sleep was the single greatest predictor injuries, even greater than stressors such as practice hours or work load.
Furthermore, high quality sleep allows for greater regenerative activity in the body that hockey players need from the wear and tear of tough practices and hard fought multi-game weekends against rivals. Sleep should be considered your #1 injury prevention tool.
Benefits 3: Longer Playing Careers
Tied to reduced injury incidences and sleep’s regenerative benefits on daily wear and tear, a recently study found that fatigue levels directly correlated to the career levels of MLB baseball players.
If you want to hear the significance of sleep on performance from someone smarter from me, the lead investigator of this study (Dr. W. Christopher Winter from Martha Jefferson Hospital Sleep Medicine Center) broke it down his study like this:
“We were shocked by how linear the relationship was, it is a great reminder that sleepiness impairs performance. From a sports perspective, this is incredibly important. What this study shows is that we can use the science of sleep to predict sports performance”.
There you have it.
Benefit 4: Better accuracy, faster sprint times
Research from another brilliant researcher, Cheri Mah (who studies sleep & athlete performance at Standford), looked directly at the relationship between sleep and performance in basketball players.
Her study recorded sprint times/shooting accuracy after every single practice for a entire season, and found that players who increased their sleep not only ran faster, but also improved BOTH free throws and 3-pointers by 9% each.
This level of improvement is significant in basketball and while, not hockey specific, performance gains this substantial could easily be theorized to be translatable to hockey.
Benefit 5: Fewer Mental Errors
You’ve likely experienced it: an all-nighter or late night with buddies and the next day you’re living in a fog. While this obviously would hurt your performance on-ice, even just reduced sleep at smaller doses (even just a couple hours) has been found to impair mental traits such as focus, speed & memory and decision making
This just isn’t it a research lab, but has been found to cause significant mental declines in athletes. MLB players were found to have poorer “plate discipline” (or decision making skills) as the season progressed through periods of declined sleep. Over an insane 162 games, decision making declined – and the primary cause is suspected to be fatigue. Scott Kutscher, the lead researcher on the paper suggested that:
“A team that recognizes this trend and takes steps to slow or reverse it – by enacting fatigue-mitigating strategies, especially in the middle and late season, for example – can gain a large competitive advantage over their opponent.”
Shoot for 7-9 hours depending on how hard you’re training. It doesn’t require a team of experts, it just requires turning the phone off and getting into bed a little bit earlier. Performance can be enhanced through more than just practice or training, and sleep’s an easy way to up your game. Enjoy those extra Zzz’s!
Source: Kyle Kokotailo,
Sunday, March 4, 2018
Effects on the brain
You’re chatting with friends at a party and a waitress comes around with glasses of champagne. You drink one, then another, maybe even a few more.
Before you realize it, you are laughing more loudly than usual and swaying as you walk. By the end of the evening, you are too slow to move out of the way of a waiter with a dessert tray and have trouble speaking clearly. The next morning, you wake up feeling dizzy and your head hurts. You may have a hard time remembering everything you did the night before.
|Learn about your amazing brain.|
These reactions illustrate how quickly and dramatically alcohol affects the brain. The brain is an intricate maze of connections that keeps our physical and psychological processes running smoothly. Disruption of any of these connections can affect how the brain works. Alcohol also can have longer-lasting consequences for the brain—changing the way it looks and works and resulting in a range of problems.
Most people do not realize how extensively alcohol can affect the brain. But recognizing these potential consequences will help you make better decisions about what amount of alcohol is appropriate for you.
WHAT HAPPENS INSIDE THE BRAIN?
The brain’s structure is complex. It includes multiple systems that interact to support all of your body’s functions—from thinking to breathing and moving.
These multiple brain systems communicate with each other through about a trillion tiny nerve cells called neurons. Neurons in the brain translate information into electrical and chemical signals the brain can understand. They also send messages from the brain to the rest of the body.
Chemicals called neurotransmitters carry messages between the neurons. Neurotransmitters can be very powerful. Depending on the type and the amount of neurotransmitter, these chemicals can either intensify or minimize your body’s responses, your feelings, and your mood. The brain works to balance the neurotransmitters that speed things up with the ones that slow things down to keep your body operating at the right pace.
Alcohol can slow the pace of communication between neurotransmitters in the brain.
DEFINING THE BRAIN CHANGES
Using brain imaging and psychological tests, researchers have identified the regions of the brain most vulnerable to alcohol’s effects. These include:
- CEREBELLUM – This area controls motor coordination. Damage to the cerebellum results in a loss of balance and stumbling, and also may affect cognitive functions such as memory and emotional response.
- LIMBIC SYSTEM – This complex brain system monitors a variety of tasks including memory and emotion. Damage to this area impairs each of these functions.
- CEREBRAL CORTEX – Our abilities to think, plan, behave intelligently, and interact socially stem from this brain region. In addition, this area connects the brain to the rest of the nervous system. Changes and damage to this area impair the ability to solve problems, remember, and learn.
ALCOHOL SHRINKS AND DISTURBS BRAIN TISSUE
Heavy alcohol consumption—even on a single occasion—can throw the delicate balance of neurotransmitters off course. Alcohol can cause your neurotransmitters to relay information too slowly, so you feel extremely drowsy. Alcohol-related disruptions to the neurotransmitter balance also can trigger mood and behavioral changes, including depression, agitation, memory loss, and even seizures.
Long-term, heavy drinking causes alterations in the neurons, such as reductions in the size of brain cells. As a result of these and other changes, brain mass shrinks and the brain’s inner cavity grows bigger. These changes may affect a wide range of abilities, including motor coordination; temperature regulation; sleep; mood; and various cognitive functions, including learning and memory.
One neurotransmitter particularly susceptible to even small amounts of alcohol is called glutamate. Among other things, glutamate affects memory. Researchers believe that alcohol interferes with glutamate action, and this may be what causes some people to temporarily “black out,” or forget much of what happened during a night of heavy drinking.
Alcohol also causes an increased release of serotonin, another neurotransmitter, which helps regulate emotional expression, and endorphins, which are natural substances that may spark feelings of relaxation and euphoria as intoxication sets in. Researchers now understand that the brain tries to compensate for these disruptions.
Neurotransmitters adapt to create balance in the brain despite the presence of alcohol. But making these adaptations can have negative results, including building alcohol tolerance, developing alcohol dependence, and experiencing alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
Friday, March 2, 2018
Pain: What is it and how do you treat it?
Chronic pain is recognized by the World Health Organization as a leading medical issue, worldwide.
Pain also has been called a first possible step on the road to opioid addiction. A slip, a broken limb followed by a prescription to oxycontin or other powerful opioid, misuse of that prescription, and the path to heroin or fentanyl abuse can easily start.
|Learn about the brain. Click here.|
Pain is an unpleasant sensation and emotional experience linked to tissue damage. Its purpose is to allow the body to react and prevent further tissue damage.
We feel pain when a signal is sent through nerve fibers to the brain for interpretation.
The experience of pain is different for everyone, and there are different ways of feeling and describing pain. This can makes it difficult to define and treat.
Pain can be short-term or long-term, it can stay in one place, or it can spread around the body.
Fast facts on pain:
--Pain results from tissue damage.
--It is a part of the body's defense mechanism. --It warns us to take action to prevent further tissue damage.
--People experience and describe pain differently, and this makes it hard to diagnose.
--A range of medications and other treatments can help relieve pain, depending on the cause.
Pain chronic, acute
Pain chronic, acute
Pain can be chronic or acute and take a variety of forms and severities.
Pain is felt when special nerves that detect tissue damage send signals to transmit information about the damage along the spinal cord to the brain. These nerves are known as nociceptors.
The brain then decides what to do about the pain.
For example, if you touch a hot surface, a message will travel through a reflex arc in the spinal cord and cause an immediate contraction of the muscles. This contraction will pull your hand away from the hot surface.
This happens so fast that the message doesn't even reach the brain. However, the pain message will continue to the brain. Once there, it will cause an unpleasant sensation of pain to be felt.
How an individual's brain interprets these signals and the efficiency of the communication channel between the nociceptors and the brain dictate how people feel pain.
Source: Medical News Today
By Adam FelmanReviewed by Deborah Weatherspoon, PhD, RN, CRNA
Tuesday, February 27, 2018
Check any obituary of a young person. It almost always lists heroin overdose as the cause. And going further, these heartbreaking obits describe the path to heroin beginning with treatment for an injury.
|Pain is a brain condition. Learn about your brain HERE!|
As the number of U.S. prescriptions for opioids doubled over a 15-year period from 105 million in 1998 to 207 million in 2013, the number of fatal overdoses from the drugs soared almost five-fold, from 4,000 deaths a year in 1999 to nearly 19,000 in 2014. That includes people who illicitly used prescription opioids and those who overdosed on pills prescribed for them.
The problem has been building since the 1990s when a shift occurred in pain management. While traditionally medical professionals avoided opioids for any pain treatment, many doctors began using these medications a quick solution to a patient's pain.
"There was an entire movement and I was being told that we had an unrecognized epidemic of pain in America," Dr. Joseph Zebley told PBS NewsHour. "I think I, like many others, were fooled into at least partially believing that and starting to write prescriptions more liberally."
Amid the growing epidemic, many doctors also don't learn much about pain management while in medical school. A 2011 study found that during four years of training, a typical U.S. medical student spends only nine hours learning about pain.
In turn, some in the medical community, with increasing pressure from regulatory agencies and policymakers, are re-examining their approaches to pain management and how it's taught.
Comprehensive pain management is much more complex than just writing a prescription. The plan can include opioids when necessary. But the comprehensive approach also involves listening to patients, thinking creatively about treatment options, and working with doctors focused on different disciplines.
--Source: PBS NewsHour
Friday, February 23, 2018
|Olympic skater Adam Rippon.|
The breathtaking achiements of Olympic athletes, and all elite athletes, bring us wonder and joy.
But, are Olympians born or made?
Learning any motor skill involves a complex relationship between the body and the brain. As the body learns a particular movement through constant repetition and practice, the brain is also learning. At each new skill level, the brain stores what it has learned in a separate area while it continues to learn. Once a skill is mastered, an athlete finds ways to trigger the brain to remember what it has learned. Some athletes learn to focus solely on the activity so that the brain is not
in any way distracted.
Conditioning (as in training), motor skills, coordination
Conditioning (as in training), motor skills, coordination
1. Why is it difficult to hit a baseball the first time you try?
The first time a person tries to hit a baseball, neither the brain nor the corresponding muscles have learned how to respond to the oncoming ball and coordinate the swing of the bat. Both have to learn this new skill.
2. How does the brain learn motor skills?
In order to perform a motor skill, the brain has to coordinate many different muscles at the same time. This makes learning a skill somewhat complex. Nevertheless, the brain has an efficient way of consolidating new information, saving what it needs and discarding what it does not. Certain parts of
the brain are active during motor learning and become inactive once the skill is mastered. New procedural memories are formed in areas of the brain dedicated to short-term memory. But they don’t stay there. Instead, these memories are stored elsewhere in the brain for future retrieval.
3. According to Dr. David Van Essen, what must an athlete do in order to perform successfully?
An athlete must analyze not just one but several objects moving simultaneously in many different directions. The visual system controls the flow of that information into the specialized subsystems of the brain that make sense of the shapes and movement trajectories of those objects.
1. Is there such a thing as a born athlete?
No person is born with the ability to hit a home run. All athletic skills are learned by the brain and the body. Individuals may be born with the potential to develop bigger and stronger muscles, but the ability to coordinate the muscles to perform well is always learned.
2. What are the most important skills an athlete must develop?
Perfect coordination between the brain and the body and the ability to “trigger” the brain to remember what it has learned. Athletes often refer to this ability as being “grooved” or “in the zone.” To hit a home run, both the body and the brain have to be well trained and perfectly coordinated. If a
person’s muscles are tired or the brain is distracted, the person is likely to pop up, ground out, or miss the ball completely.
Source: Dana Sourcebook of Brain Science, Third Edition